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HSQLDB - 100% Java Database

2.4.0 Released

Sixteenth anniversary release, 9 April 2017. Version 2.4.0 for Java 8 adds support for java.time classes in JDBC and adds many enhancements. These include table spaces for disk-based tables, more compatibility functions and improved SQL routine support.

Version 2.3.4 added the UUID type for columns is now supported. SYNONYM for tables and functions, PERIOD predicates, and auto-updated TIMESTAMP columns on row updates are some of the new features. Ability to cancel long-running statements from JDBC, as well as from admin sessions has been added. UTF-16 files are now supported for text table sources, in addition to 8-bit text files. MySQL compatibility for REPLACE, INSERT IGNORE and ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statements has been improved further. This release incorporates extensive code reviews, enhancements and bug fixes.

HSQLDB (HyperSQL DataBase) is the leading SQL relational database software written in Java. It offers a small, fast multithreaded and transactional database engine with in-memory and disk-based tables and supports embedded and server modes. It includes a powerful command line SQL tool and simple GUI query tools.

HSQLDB supports the widest range of SQL Standard features seen in any open source database engine: SQL:2011 core language features and an extensive list of SQL:2011 optional features. It supports nearly full Advanced ANSI-92 SQL (BNF format). Many extensions to the Standard, including syntax compatibility modes and features of other popular database engines, are also supported.

Version 2.4.0 is fully multithreaded and supports high performance 2PL and MVCC (multiversion concurrency control) transaction control models. See the list of new features in version 2.4.0.

HSQLDB has been constantly developed over 17 years and is used as a database and persistence engine in over 1700 Open Source Software projects and many commercial products. The latest versions are extremely stable and reliable. It is known for its small size, ability to execute completely or partly in memory, its flexibility and speed.

HSQLDB is completely free to use and distribute under our licenses, based on the standard BSD license and fully compatible with all major open source licenses.

pole position graph

The database performance test package PolePosition compares the performance of relational and object databases for storing objects. We ran the PolePosition 0.4 tests with HSQLDB 2.2.6 embedded and server (both with disk tables with sync-on-commit), Apache Derby embedded and MySQL+InnoDB server. See the results, which show the query processing improvements since HSQLDB 2.0


HyperSQL is developed and published by the The HSQL Development Group. The group was formed in 2001 and has released several major new versions of the database over the years. Version 2.0 was released in 2010 with a brand new transactional core engine and JDBC implementation. The engine has been developed much further in version 2.4.0.

Direct downloads from SourceForge exceed 2,000,000 copies, with hundreds of millions of copies distributed as part of other software packages.

HyperSQL was selected as the SourceForge Project of the Month for January 2012 and was featured on SourceForge.net home page. An interview with core developers is published here.

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